Early Steps to School Success

PARENTS ARE CHILDREN'S VERY FIRST AND MOST IMPORTANT TEACHER! Early Steps to School Success (ESSS) is an early childhood home visiting program for expectant mothers and children from birth to age five. ESSS provides a variety of programs and services such as:

  • Home Visits Twice a Month
  • Book Bag Lending Program
  • Developmental Screenings
  • Individualized Portfolio
  • Monthly Parent Child Groups
  • Free Books to Build Child's Home Library
  • Community Resource Guide
  • Transitions to Preschool
  • Transitions to Kindergarten
  • and much more!

For More Information Contact:
Christina Riggs-Johnson, Early Childhood Coordinator
360-942-3415, option 1

These students recently visited Opal's Art Glass in Cosmopolis. As you can see, they were able to see some great stuff!






In October 2007, Raymond School District staff began meeting to gain better insight into the process and philosophy of transitioning from a traditional report card to a standards-based report card. This group of 10-12 people researched, listened, pondered and learned all they could about standards-based grading. The results of that work is summarized in this Standards-based Brochure; you may download it by clicking on it.

One of the major strengths of this type of reporting is that it is considered "best practice" and is supported by research. The purpose of this page is to share some of the research that supports the principles and guidelines of a standards-based reporting system. The research is categorized by the topic(s) covered; some research addresses more than one topic, so some items are repeated. Where possible, there is Internet link to the article. We will continue to update this research page as studies and papers become available.



Articles and Books



Black, P. & Wiliam, D. (1998). Inside the black box: Raising standards through classroom assessment. Phi Delta Kappan, 80(2), 139.

Black, P., Harrison, C., Lee, C., Marshall, B., & Wiliam, D. (2004). Working inside the black box: Assessment for learning in the classroom. Phi Delta Kappan, 86(1), 8-21. http://datause.cse.ucla.edu/DOCS/pb_wor_2004.pdf

Kohn, A. (1999). Grading is degrading. Education Digest, 65(1), 59-64.

Formative/Summative Assessment

Black, P., Harrison, C., Lee, C., Marshall, B., & Wiliam, D. (2004).  Working inside the black box: Assessment for learning in the classroom. Phi Delta Kappan, 86(1), 8-21. http://datause.cse.ucla.edu/DOCS/pb_wor_2004.pdf

Chappuis, S. & Chappuis, J. (2007/8). The best value in formative assessment. Educational, Leadership, 65(4), 14-18.

Marzano, R. J.  (2006). Classroom assessment and grading that work.  Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Marzano, R. J. (2008). Making Standards Useful in the Classroom.

Popham, J. W. (2009). Instruction that Measures Up: Successful Teaching in the Age of Accountability.

Popham, J. W. (2008). Transformative Assessment.

Stiggins, Rick. (2007). Assessment through the student's eyes. Educational Leadership, 64(8), 22-26.

Wiliam, D. (2007, December/2008, January). Changing classroom practice. Educational Leadership, 65(4), 36-41.

Wormeli, R. (2006a). Accountability: Teaching through assessment and feedback, not grading. American Secondary Education, 34(3), 14-27.

The Effects of Zeros

Guskey, T.R. (2004). Are zeros your ultimate weapon? The Education Digest, 70(3), 31-35.

McMillan, J.H. (1999). The devastating effect of zeros on grades: What can be done?

Reeves, D.B. (2004). The case against the zero. Phi Delta Kappan, 86(4), 324-325.


Aidman, B.J., Gates, J.M., & Deterra Sims, E.A. (2001). Building a better report card. Education Digest, 66(5), 49-53.

Allen, J.D. (2005). Grades as valid measures of academic achievement of classroom learning. Clearing House, 78(5), 218-223.

Friedman, S.J. & Frisbie, D.A. (2000). Making report cards measure up. Education Digest, 65(5), 45-50.

Guskey, T. R. & Bailey, J. M. (2001). Developing Grading and Reporting Systems for Student Learning.

Guskey, T. R. (2001, September). Helping Standards make the grade. Educational Leadership, 59(1), 20-28. 

Guskey, T.R. & Jung, L.A. (2006). The challenges of standards-based grading. Leadership Compass,  4(2).

Guskey, T.R. (2001). Fixing grading policies that undermine standards. Education Digest, 66(7), 16-21.

Guskey, T.R. (2000). Grading policies that work against standards . . . and how to fix them. NASSP Bulletin, 84(620), p. 20-29. http://www.minnetonka.k12.mn.us/academics/gradingandreporting/Documents/GradingarticleGUSKEY.pdf

Guskey, T. R. (2001, September). Helping Standards make the grade. Educational Leadership, 59(1), 20-28.

Guskey, T.R. (2013, September). The Case Against Percentage Grades. Educational Leadership, 71(1), 68-72.

Hu, Winnie.  (2009, March 25).  Report cards give up A's and B's for 4s and 3s.  The New York Times.

Kohn, A. (1999). Grading is degrading. Education Digest, 65(1), 59-64.

Krumboltz, J.D. & Yeh, C.H. (1996).  Competitive grading sabotages good teaching. Phi Delta Kappan, 78(4), 324-326.

Munk, D.D. & Bursuck, W.D. (2001). What report card grades should and do communicate. Remedial & Special Education, 22(5), 280-287.

O'Connor, K.  (2002). How to grade for learning: Linking grades to standards.  Glenview, IL: LessonLab.

Wiggins, G. (1994, October). Toward better report cards. Educational Leadership, 52(2), 28-38.


Kohn, Alfie. (2007). Rethinking homework. Principal, 86(3), 35-38.

Checkley, K. (2003). When homework works. Classroom Leadership, 7(1), 1-2.

Christopher, S. (2007/8). Homework: A few practice arrows. Educational Leadership, 65(4), 74-75.

Marzano, R.J. & Pickering, D.J. (2007). The case for and against homework. Educational Leadership, 64(6), 74-79.

Vatterot, C. (2008). What is effective homework? ASCD Express, 3(7), 1.


Levy, H.M. (2008). Meeting the needs of all students through differentiated instruction: Helping every child reach and exceed standards. The Clearing House, 81(4), 161-164.

Tomlinson, C.A. (2005). Grading and differentiation: Paradox or good practice?  Theory Into Practice, 44(3), 262-269.

Wormeli, R. (2006b). Fair isn't always equal: Assessing & grading in the differentiated classroom. Portland, ME: Stenhouse.

Parents looking for help in understanding the new math standards and helping their children with their homework can find help here:


 Another great site with video lessons is the Khan Academy: https://www.khanacademy.org/

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