Research/Links for Standards-based Reporting PDF Print E-mail

In October 2007, Raymond School District staff began meeting to gain better insight into the process and philosophy of transitioning from a traditional report card to a standards-based report card. This group of 10-12 people researched, listened, pondered and learned all they could about standards-based grading. The results of that work is summarized in this Standards-based Brochure; you may download it by clicking on it.

One of the major strengths of this type of reporting is that it is considered "best practice" and is supported by research. The purpose of this page is to share some of the research that supports the principles and guidelines of a standards-based reporting system. The research is categorized by the topic(s) covered; some research addresses more than one topic, so some of items are repeated. Where possible, there is Internet link to the article. We will continue to update this research page as studies and papers become available. (Our thanks to the Aberdeen School District, ESD 113 and the Des Moines Diocese for providing the starting point for this page www.dmdiocese.org.)

Articles and Books

Motivation

Black, P. & Wiliam, D. (1998). Inside the black box: Raising standards through classroom assessment. Phi Delta Kappan, 80(2), 139. http://www.pdkintl.org/kappan/kbla9810.htm

Black, P., Harrison, C., Lee, C., Marshall, B., & Wiliam, D. (2004). Working inside the black box: Assessment for learning in the classroom. Phi Delta Kappan, 86(1), 8-21. http://datause.cse.ucla.edu/DOCS/pb_wor_2004.pdf

Kohn, A. (1999). Grading is degrading. Education Digest, 65(1), 59-64.

Formative/Summative Assessment

Black, P., Harrison, C., Lee, C., Marshall, B., & Wiliam, D. (2004).  Working inside the black box: Assessment for learning in the classroom. Phi Delta Kappan, 86(1), 8-21. http://datause.cse.ucla.edu/DOCS/pb_wor_2004.pdf

Chappuis, S. & Chappuis, J. (2007/8). The best value in formative assessment. Educational, Leadership, 65(4), 14-18.

Marzano, R. J.  (2006). Classroom assessment and grading that work. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Marzano, R. J. (2008). Making Standards Useful in the Classroom.

Popham, J. W. (2009). Instruction that Measures Up: Successful Teaching in the Age of Accountability.

Popham, J. W. (2008). Transformative Assessment.
Stiggins, Rick. (2007). Assessment through the student's eyes. Educational Leadership, 64(8), 22-26.
http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational_leadership/may07/vol64/num08/Assessment_Through_the_Student's_Eyes.aspx

Wiliam, D. (2007, December/2008, January). Changing classroom practice. Educational Leadership, 65(4), 36-41.
http://www.rbteach.com/rbteach/PDFs/el200712_wiliam.pdf

Varlas, L. (2013, Education Update, October). How We Got Grading Wrong. http://www.raymondk12.org/resources-mainmenu-73/district-documents/doc_download/587-how-we-got-grading-wrong.html

Wormeli, R. (2006a). Accountability: Teaching through assessment and feedback, not grading. American Secondary Education, 34(3), 14-27.

The Effects of Zeros

Guskey, T.R. (2004). Are zeros your ultimate weapon? The Education Digest, 70(3), 31-35.
http://www.cesa2.k12.wi.us/pss/Zeros.pdf

McMillan, J.H. (1999). The devastating effect of zeros on grades: What can be done?

Reeves, D.B. (2004). The case against the zero. Phi Delta Kappan, 86(4), 324-325.
http://www.ncpep.org/images/CaseAgainstTheZero.pdf

Grading/Reporting

Aidman, B.J., Gates, J.M., & Deterra Sims, E.A. (2001). Building a better report card. Education Digest, 66(5), 49-53.

Allen, J.D. (2005). Grades as valid measures of academic achievement of classroom learning. Clearing House, 78(5), 218-223.
http://www.tcnj.edu/~senate/resources/documents/GradesasValidMeasures.pdf

Friedman, S.J. & Frisbie, D.A. (2000). Making report cards measure up. Education Digest, 65(5), 45-50.

Guskey, T. R. & Bailey, J. M. (2001). Developing Grading and Reporting Systems for Student Learning.

Guskey, T. R. (2001, September). Helping Standards make the grade. Educational Leadership, 59(1), 20-28.  http://course1.winona.edu/lgray/el626/Articlesonline/Guskey_helping.html

Guskey, T.R. & Jung, L.A. (2006). The challenges of standards-based grading. Leadership Compass,  4(2).
http://www.naesp.org/resources/2/Leadership_Compass/2006/LC2006v4n2a3.pdf

Guskey, T.R. (2001). Fixing grading policies that undermine standards. Education Digest, 66(7), 16-21.

Guskey, T.R. (2000). Grading policies that work against standards . . . and how to fix them. NASSP Bulletin, 84(620), p. 20-29. http://www.minnetonka.k12.mn.us/academics/gradingandreporting/Documents/GradingarticleGUSKEY.pdf

Guskey, T. R. (2001, September). Helping Standards make the grade. Educational Leadership, 59(1), 20-28.
http://course1.winona.edu/lgray/el626/Articlesonline/Guskey_helping.html

Hu, Winnie.  (2009, March 25).  Report cards give up A's and B's for 4s and 3s.  The New York Times.
http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/25/education/25cards.html?_r=1

Kohn, A. (1999). Grading is degrading. Education Digest, 65(1), 59-64.

Krumboltz, J.D. & Yeh, C.H. (1996).  Competitive grading sabotages good teaching. Phi Delta Kappan, 78(4), 324-326.
http://www.pdkintl.org/kappan/krumbol.htm

Munk, D.D. & Bursuck, W.D. (2001). What report card grades should and do communicate. Remedial & Special Education, 22(5), 280-287.

O'Connor, K.  (2002). How to grade for learning: Linking grades to standards.  Glenview, IL:  LessonLab.

Wiggins, G. (1994, October). Toward better report cards. Educational Leadership, 52(2), 28-38.


Homework

Kohn, Alfie. (2007). Rethinking homework. Principal, 86(3), 35-38.
http://www.naesp.org/resources/2/Principal/2007/J-Fp35.pdf

Checkley, K. (2003). When homework works. Classroom Leadership, 7(1), 1-2.

Christopher, S. (2007/8). Homework: A few practice arrows. Educational Leadership, 65(4), 74-75.

Marzano, R.J. & Pickering, D.J. (2007). The case for and against homework. Educational Leadership, 64(6), 74-79.

Vatterot, C. (2008). What is effective homework? ASCD Express, 3(7), 1. http://www.homeworklady.com/index2.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_view&gid=16&Itemid=34

Differentiation

Levy, H.M. (2008). Meeting the needs of all students through differentiated instruction: Helping every child reach and exceed standards. The Clearing House, 81(4), 161-164.

Tomlinson, C.A. (2005). Grading and differentiation: Paradox or good practice?  Theory Into Practice, 44(3), 262-269. http://www.spokaneschools.org/Rogers/LC%20Web/LC%20Web/facultyroom/PD/differentiated/Grading_and_Differentiation-Paradox_or_Good_%20Practice.pdf

Wormeli, R. (2006b). Fair isn't always equal: Assessing & grading in the differentiated classroom. Portland, ME: Stenhouse.

 
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